Abstracts

Moral Relations and Practical Wisdom in Nicomachean Morals

Seyyed Hamid Reza Hassani / Assistant Professor of Seminary and University                       

Received: 2016/05/10 - Accepted: 2016/10/16                                       hrhasani@rihu.ac.ir

Abstract

Practical wisdom is one of the most basic human philosophical questions. "What can one do?", "What should one do?" or "How should one act?" are of the most fundamental questions of men. In this paper, an explanation of the essential elements of the practical wisdom theory and moral identity from the viewpoint of Aristotle, under the supervision of some variant knowing and existential classifications is presented. Aristotle has presented these classifications in a way that various aspects of functions and roles that we are faced with in edification and practical wisdom and even humanitarian sciences, are planned in a united system. Having a documentary view on Aristotle`s moral theory, this study aims at analyzing the relations between morals and practical wisdom from his point of view.

Keywords: Nicomachean morals, virtues, practical wisdom, Aristotle, morals.


Justification Based on Axioms (Moral and Immoral Axioms)

Ali Ahmadi Ami / PhD Student of Somparative Moral Philosophy, IKI        ali_20750@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/09/30 - Accepted: 2017/02/18

Abstract

Among fundamentalist moral ideologies, some believe that base statements in moral reasoning are self-explanatory. Among the people who consider basic moral statements as self-explanatory, this disagreement exists that they consider some of the basic self-explanatory statements as moral affairs and they consider some these statements as immoral affairs. It is essential to understand that the method by which basic moral statements are notified among the scholars is remarkable and some are being the mere witness. Also some like Kant consider them as prior evidence of practical reason. Some scholars apply subject and predicate to prove the self-explanation and some show the self-explanation by logical clarification. Also it is essential to mention that the value and necessity are not the same for moral philosophers. Some believe that value has basic self-explanatory statements and also some believe that moral necessities do. Also some consider both the same. This study aims at analyzing the most important self-explanatory ideas in meta-morals form the aspect of the justification of moral statements. 

Key words: justification, axioms, moral axioms, immoral axioms.


Moral Obligations From Ayatollah Sadiq Larijani`s Ponit of View

Yahya Abdollahi / PhD student of Shiisim, University of religions and Islamic sects                      

                                                                                                                                                                              yahyaabdolahi@gmail.com

Ali Mohammadi / Seminary Student, level three                                                                                   

Received: 2016/02/20 - Accepted: 2016/08/10

Abstract

Explaining the nature of "moral obligations", is the main purpose of Mr. Sadiq Larijani`s theory of moral philosophy. He believes that from the aspect of ontology, moral obligations are actual obligations that a man understands them in nature. Pertaining to these obligations are the essence and nature of the action that are placed in the world of substantive appointment. From the viewpoint of semantics, these actual obligations have the possibility to be exposed in two ways of declarative and originative. Also the method by which these obligations are recognized from the view point of semantics is the unity of the nature of the action with the essence of the man and in the same manner, recognition of the nature of those obligations. Along with describing Ayatollah Sadiq Larijani`s views, this paper attempts to analyze his remarks as awell. Being based on the basis of the essence, this theory has some faults with the essence originality. Also, not analyzing the obedience and disobedience to God and issuance of an act of obscene are other problems facing this theory. Eventually it is mentioned that from the view point of monotheistic in the moral philosophy, all the moral obligations must return to God.

Key words: moral philosophy, moral obligations, nature and essence of the action, actual fact.


Social Intuitionalism (the Psychology of Moral Reasoning from the Viewpoint of Jonathan Heed)

Saleh Ghorbanian / PhD student of Islamic ethics, Ma`aref University   salehgh313@gmail.com

Received: 2016/06/12 - Accepted: 2016/12/05                                        hnajafih@yahoo.com

Abstract

Moral reasoning has been playing a pivotal role in ethics. Due to this, all ethical views had the same theme. After philosophy was added to the science of ethics, the psychology of ethics promoted this branch of knowledge. The psychology of ethics promoted pivotal ethical affairs like the concept of ethical reasoning and its position in ethical judgments. With the help of genetic studies and neuroscience studies in recent years, this science promoted ethical reasoning. Jonathan Heed`s social intuitionalism model is the result of 20th century neuroscience researches and has a strong cultural background that has some differences with the works of Piajet and Kelberg. This paper aims at clarifying the analysis of this theory and presenting suggestions to criticize this point of view.

Key words: moral reasoning, intuition, social intuitionalism, ethical judgment, Jonathan Heed.


The Features of Moral Entertainment in Islamic Lifestyle

Seyyed Abdollah Mirkhandan / MA of practical ethics, Moral and Education institute                    

                                                                                                                                                                     Abdollahmikhandan@yahoo.com

Seyyed Hamid Mirkhandan / PhD Student of culture and communications, Baqir Al-Olum University 

Received: 2016/07/08 - Accepted: 2016/12/23                                         H.mirkhandan@ yahoo.com

Abstract

Entertainment is an important part of lifestyle and in order to have an Islamic lifestyle one must analyze the features of moral entertainment from the viewpoint of Islam. Using a descriptive-analytic method and a prescriptive method this study seeks to find some of these features so that the absence of knowledge and theory would be compensated in this field. The findings show that there is some philosophy behind entertainment in Islamic lifestyle. These principles have two-way interaction with background elements and other lifestyle components. Some of the elements of moral entertainment include: Unitarianism, seeking nearness to God, paying attention to the unseen world, realism, rationality, freedom from futility, preserving human dignity in entertainment, not being involved with sins having fun with moderation.

Key words: entertainment, pure entertainment, leisure time, lifestyle, Islamic lifestyle.


A Comparative Study of Martyr Motahhari
and Rousseau's view about Moral Education Curriculum

Hassan Najafi / PhD Student of Curriculum Studies, Allame Tabatabaei University                       

                                                                                               hnajafih@yahoo.com

Hassan Maleki / Professor of Curriculum Studies, Allame Tabatabaei University                           

Received: 2016/05/14 - Accepted: 2016/11/12

Abstract

The current study aims at analyzing the comparative study of moral education curriculum (aims, content, teaching-learning and evaluating methods) from the viewpoint of Martyr Motahhari and Rousseau. The study has been done through the method of analytic-documentary. To collect the data, sources and contexts related to the topic of the study were qualitatively analyzed by taking notes from the sources. The findings show that in some ((educational purposes)) there were coordination between the two views and some disagreements. Martyr Motahhari believes that the Quran ((content)) is the best. However Rousseau believes that nature and experience are the best contents. There are similar cases in ((teaching-learning methods)); however sometimes, various inferences can be drawn from interpretation of a method. In evaluation, Martyr Motahhari`s educational view contains self-assessment methods, and the evaluation is based on action and in Rousseau`s curriculum observation is the method of evaluation. 

Key words: moral education, curriculum, the four elements, Martyr Motahhari, Rousseau.


Analyzing Moral Education Curriculum
in Iran and Some Other Countries

Maryam Sharifi / PhD student of curriculum, Isfahan University     sharifi.m2012@gmail.com

Ebrahim Mir Shah Jafari / Professor of Educational Sciences, Isfahan University                          

Received: 2016/07/19 - Accepted: 2017/01/12                                          jafari@edu.ui.ac.ir

Abstract

Moral education is one of the most important subjects in education and training. To this end, we need a plan in educational sciences that is called curriculum. This scheme can only be toward the true path once it is based on an approach that is originated from principles, methods and perspectives on the culture of that country. The present study deals with the analysis of the dominant approach on moral education curriculum in Iran and some other countries. In this descriptive-analytic paper one can realize that in public education in Iran there is tendency toward morals. This approach, in the framework of course books, weakens moral education. This approach is a kind of reduction of moral education to moral informing. While in other countries, moral education is observing citizen`s moral and mostly deals with preparing the youth for roles and responsibilities as citizens.

Key words: moral education, curriculum, citizen education.