A Review of the Theory of the Necessity of Bel-Qi'īth Bel-Ghir in the Semantics of "Moral Obligation"

Hossein Ahmadi / Assistant Professor at Imam Khomeini Institute for Education and Research



Semantics of ethical concepts is one of the topics of meta ethics. Moral concepts, including the issues of value and necessity, are the concepts used in the premise of ethical propositions. "Good" and "bad" are two examples of value concepts, and "must", "must not" and "obligation” are examples of necessity concepts. A lot of papers have been published about the meaning of "moral obligation", but this paper seeks to elaborate on the theory of Bel-Qi'īth Bel-Ghir (in-relation-to-something else, by- something-else, a theory proposed to complete the theory of the necessity of Bel-Qi'īth elal-Ghir. Based on this research, the theory of Bel-Qi'īth Bel-Ghir has such flaws as being incomprehensive, leading to impossible infinite regression, and confusion of discussion which prevents it from being accepted as a defensible theory. Moreover, the theory of the necessity of Bel-Qi'īth Elal-Ghir is free from the defect that the necessity of Bel-Qi'īth Bel-Ghir view claims to be capable of correcting. This library-based paper uses an analytical-philosophical method.

Key words: moral necessity, necessity of Bel-Qi'īth, necessity of Bel-Ghir, necessity of Bel-Qi'īth Bel-Ghi.



The Relationship between “Must and Is”

Mohammad Sarabakhshi / Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy of Imam Khomeini Institute for Education and Research



The relationship between "must" and "is" has always been one of the most challenging issues in the field of ethical philosophy, and tackling this issue will pave the way for many other issues, including the relationship between morality and science. This paper aims at providing various assumptions about the issue of “Must and Is” and examining the possibility of realizing this relationship. The exact analysis of the problem of “Must and Is” results in the conclusion that ethical value is a real and objective matter, but moral obligation is a mentally-posited tool for motivating the audience, so that by provoking the doer into doing the moral action, the purpose and goal of Ethics, which has an inherent value, is accomplished. Given the reality of moral values, it can be argued that the concept of "value" is semantically related to the concept of "Is”, and moral propositions also represent a kind of reality. On the other hand, ethical values, due to being real, can be deduced from the immoral “Is” s. Therefore, there is a logical and inferential relationship between “Must and Is”, and ethical values ​​can be derived through reliance on immoral “Is”s.

Key words: moral value, requirement, good, bad, should, should not, Is.


A Review of the Principles of Ethics in Liberalism

Abbas Gara’ee / PhD Student of Transcendental Wisdom, Imam Khomeini Institute for Education and Research

Mohammad Hosseinzadeh Yazdi / Professor at the Department of Philosophy, Imam Khomeini Institute for Education and Research



The idea that the real world is devoid of any value or cannot be the source of any value, as well as the particular individualism of liberalism, established a moral school that introduced individual will power and wish as the only source of the validity of moral propositions. Despite the prevalence of liberal ethics, several criticism have been leveled at it. Explaining the school of liberal ethics, this paper seeks to mention some of these critiques. The results of the critical review of this view indicate that the moral school of liberalism should be categorized as a kind of ethical non-realism and, consequently, moral relativism. Hence, the result of moral non-realism is that one can never justify the moral principles of any school of thought. On the other hand, relativity in morality will lead to the invalidity of all moral systems including all relativistic schools.The unreasonable results of relativity in ethics have led the liberalists to speak of obligations such as the need to respect the desires of others, but they have never resolved one  ambiguity: while being non-realistic, how can one rely on real disastrous consequences to justify such obligation? The truth is that only by considering real happiness for man on the one hand, and the real outcomes of his voluntary actions, on the other hand, can one create a justified ethical school; happiness which, from the point of view of the religion of Truth, is achieved by  nearness to the absolutely Perfect, and to understand the details of the outcomes of human’s voluntary acts, one always needs the guidance of the absolutely Perfect.

Key words: The philosophy of ethics, liberalism, individualism, ethical relativism, ethical non-realism.


The Value of Moral Propositions in the Eyes of Allameh Tabataba'i

Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Amiri / Level Four of Hawzah



One of the important issues raised in the philosophy of ethics is whether ethical propositions are realistic and provable, or the consistency of these propositions is considered to be mentally-posited and unprovable. Considering the importance of Allameh Tabataba'i 's novel perspective, this paper attempts to extract and examine his views on whether the moral propositions are realistic or not, and also on relativity or absoluteness of ethics .The analysis of his thoughts suggests that, although he believes that moral propositions are mentally-posited or relative, first, his ideas are only true with regard to the mentally-posited or relative things (moral obligations), not the provable or real propositions. Second, the unprovability of  mentally-posited propositions in the domain of morality is not a reason for moral relativity.

Key words: realism, ethical proposition, provability, practical intellect, relativism, pure relative, philosophical concepts.


Descartes' Philosophy of Ethics at a Glance

Mas’ood Omid / Associate Professor at the Department of Philosophy, University of Tabriz



The subject matter of this paper is whether on can discuss the philosophy of ethics in the Cartesian way of thinking? Does Descartes' philosophy engage in discussions on the philosophy of ethics? The answer to the above questions is positive. In its entirety, Descartes' philosophy involves important discussions on the subject of ethics. Several discussions in Descartes' philosophy can be regarded as falling into the category of the philosophy of ethics, such as the therapeutic approach of Descartes to human areas, the active and passive foundations of ethics, the ethics of the body and the soul, the problem of prevention or treatment in ethics, the link between metaphysics and ethics , the relationship between natural sciences and ethics, ethical levels, and so on. Describing and analyzing the important issues of Descartes' moral philosophy, this paper reviews and criticizes his thoughts.

Key words: Descartes, the philosophy of ethics, metaphysics, ethics, ethical subject.



The Ethical Values of Approximation of Islamic Religions in the Present Age


Mahmood Rahimi / MA in Applied Ethics, Ethics and Education Institute of Higher Education

Mohammad Fath Ali-Khani / Assistant Professor at the Research Institute of Hawzah and University



Without considering the approximation of Islamic religions as the theoretical basis of the unity of the Islamic Ummah, it is meaningless to talk about Islamic unity. Approximation of religions is the best way to reduce religious and ideological differences. This important issue, along with the undeniable role of ethics in the institutionalization of the approximate lifestyle within the Islamic community, necessitates serious and meticulous attention to approximate ethics. The present paper seeks to explain the ethics of approximation based on priority. This problem has been investigated using a library-based method of data collection and a descriptive-analytical approach to data analysis. Regarding the recent problems and damages of the approximation of Islamic religions, the following ethical principles of approximation are emphasized: "refraining from subjecting each other to calumnies ", "cooperating in common principles and values and refraining from provoking disputes", "avoiding insults to the sacred things of each other"," freedom in the choice of religion "and" having a good intent and attention to the sacred goal of approximation ". Ignoring each of these principles will have significant quantitative and qualitative consequence for the Islamic community.

Key words: approximation of religions, unity, Ethics, ethical principles.