Abstracts

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The Origin of Virtues and Vices in the View of Allamah Tabataba'i

 

Taghi Muhader / PhD student of philosophy of ethic, IKI                                       tmohader@gmail.com

Received: 2017/08/25 - Accepted: 2018/02/12

Abstract

The ethics and self-purification have always been one of the concerns of human beings. Life is meaningless without moral virtues. In fact, moral virtues determine the human perfections and give meaning to human life. But the realization of this ambitious goal will not be possible without finding the true source for virtues. Because, discussing the absolute and effective virtues on human happiness is only based on the existence of a real origin for virtues. Hence, the most ethical schools have always been struggling to provide a real source for virtues to realize the human happiness. To find the true source for moral virtues, we must carefully determine the true perfection of mankind. According to Allameh Tabataba'i's point of view, the true perfection of mankind is the attainment to monotheism in its various stages. Using a descriptive method this research seeks to demonstrate that the mother and the source of all moral virtues is monotheism from the point of view of Allamah Tabataba'i.

Key words: Allamah Tabataba'i, virtues, vices, monotheism, relative perceptions, perfection.


A Comparative Study on Freedom and Enjoining
Good and Forbidding Evil

 

Ali Ahmadi Amin / PhD student of comparative philosophy of ethic, IKI             ali_20750@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/10/01 – Accepted: 2018/02/21

Abstract

At a glance, the liberals are divided into two groups of supporters of positive freedom and advocates of negative liberty. The principle of moral liberty, in the view of liberalism, is incompatible with some of the ethical principles of Islam such as enjoining good and forbidding evil. Therefore, the comparison between these two principles is controversial. Using an analytical method, this research seeks to study the principle of freedom with the principle of the enjoining good and forbidding evil with a comparative approach. The findings show that accepting the enjoining good and forbidding evil is preferable to the principle of freedom, not only because of the foundation of rational basis, including ethical realism, but also because it exempts from the expressed critical views on freedom.

Key words: The enjoining good and forbidding evil, positive freedom, negative liberty, liberalism.


Triple Constructions of Morals in Descarte's Intellectual Coordinates

 

Tahereh Dehghanian / M.A student of philosophy, Allamah Tabatabaii University tdehghanian@yahoo.com

Mahdi Behniafar / Assistant Professor of philosophy department, Allamah Tabatabaii University, madibehnai@gmail.com

Received: 2017/09/12 – Accepted: 2018/02/13

Abstract

Descartes is called the father of modern philosophy; because he was trying to establish a new pattern of epistemology by explaining his own way in Method. This method is manifested in all aspects of his philosophy in such a way that his moral system is based on this method. Contrary to the reputation he gained in method, he was never able to attain the same degree of general acceptance in the ethics that he was concerned about, because he failed to establish a comprehensive and coherent pattern in ethics. This research introduces ethics in his intellectual coordinates. The purpose of this research is to study the ethics of Descartes in three areas of "the provisional moral, the ethics of belief, and the constant moral." The result of the descriptive-analytic study of these domains is that unlike its name, the provisional moral is the basis of ethics for two other ethical explanations. The constant morals must also be called the derived one. Explaining the relationship of these staggering ethics, it must be acknowledged that it is not possible to have a mutation from the provisional moral to the constant morals. The provisional moral is prior to the method, the ethics of belief is alongside the method and ultimately, the constant moral is posterior the Cartesian method. In each of these arenas, criticisms have been discussed.

Key words: morality, the provisional moral, the ethics of belief, the constant moral, method.


The Study of Barriers to Recognition from the Viewpoint of Rumi

 

Fatemeh Torkashvand / M.A student of philosophy and Islamic ethic, Alzahra University                                    fatemetkd@yahoo.com

Naseradin Hasanzadeh / Assistant Professor of Islamic Philosophy, Malayer University

Received: 2017/09/17 – Accepted: 2018/02/06

Abstract

Recognizing the secret of the universe and the truth of the human being is one of the main teachings of many religions and philosophical and mystical schools to guide man to the main purpose of creation. Self-knowledge provides the possibility of immediate penetration of mankind into the divine manifestation. Inspiring by the tradition of "Whoever recognizes his self, recognizes his Lord" Rumi has focused on the importance of self-knowledge and its connection with theology in various ways. Although the knowledge of the intellective soul leads to the knowledge of God, obtaining the light of knowledge and perfection is based on the elimination of the obstacles of knowing, which are barriers to self-development or veil of truth, because the light of knowledge and perfection is the result of purifying from false, separating from the material world and following the true elders. This paper analyzes the most important barriers and veils of knowledge from the point of view of Rumi. The most important obstacles of knowing in his view are: lust, whims, love of the world, blind imitation and greed.

Key words: Knowledge, cognition, Mawlānā, Self-knowledge, sensual passion, love of world, Taqlid ("imitation"), greed.


The Scope of the Behavioral Vice of Fraud and Its Consequences

 

Muhammad Taqi Subhaninia / Assistant Professor of Quran and Hadith University sobhany@gmail.com

Received: 2017/09/27 - Accepted: 2018/02/12

Abstract

The fraud is one of the behavioral vices that have very grave and irreversible consequences if it spreads in the human being's environments, such as workplace, educational place or at the macro level of society. One of the ways to prevent the spread of this vicious behavior in society is awareness about the consequences of this behavior. This behavioral vice may turn into vicious morale by continuation. The most important types of fraud manifest in education, economic affairs, financial affairs, governance affairs and position. The devastating consequences of this behavior are evident in both individual and social, so that the dishonest person will suffer more than anyone else. Using the library method this paper identifies the individual and social consequences of fraud through the Holy Quran and the narrations.

Key words: fraud, lie, behavioral vices, social harm, consequences of fraud.


Sport and Moral Development: A Review of the Most Important Empirical Findings on the Impact of Sports on Moral Development

 

Alireza Kamalaldin / P.h.D. Student of Education Teaching Islamic Ethic sub-discipline, Shahrud University      alikamal2002@gmil.com

Received: 2017/09/17 - Accepted: 2018/03/08

Abstract

Today, the idea that sport in its various forms can contribute to the evolution of the moral and ethical education of individuals is universally accepted. A look at some recent debates indicates that this idea also has serious opponents. Relying on empirical findings in recent decades, some sports psychologists have serious doubts about the ethical functioning of sports, at least in some forms. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the most important empirical findings in the field of the impact of sport on moral education. Using a descriptive method this research studies the most important empirical findings in this field. The findings show that empirical studies which mostly conducted at championship and competitive levels, do not provide a clear picture of the impact of these sports on moral education and development.

Key words: sports, athletic figure, athletic values, moral reasoning, moral education, aggression.