قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

The Ethical Challenges of Propagating Religion for the Opposite Sex and the Ways of Overcoming them

 Mohammad Shokri / MA in Ethics Philosophy, Ethics and Education Institute of Higher Education
Muslem Mohammadi / Assistant Professor, Department of Theology, Farabi University of Qom
Received: 2017/11/21 - Accepted: 2018/06/19

Propagation of religion is a very holy and important matter; yet it faces many challenges. Among the most important challenges in this regard are the ethical challenges of propagation for the opposite sex, as well as propagation in religiously and culturally diverse areas. Being based on Islamic ethics, this research is carried out with the aim of explaining and solving one of these challenges, namely propagating for the opposite sex. The main concern in this research is to answer the question of the ethical challenges of propagating religion for the opposite sex and the ways of solving them. According to the research, the solutions to the ethical challenges of propagation for the opposite sex include: observance of public chastity in speech and behavior, avoiding prohibited (Haram) look, avoidance of mixing, avoidance of causing slander, and having social zeal. The methodology of this research is analytical -descriptive in terms of data analysis, and library-based in terms of data collection. Besides, this research is considered as an applied research in terms of objectives.
Keywords: ethics, mission, religion, propagation of religion, ethics of propagator, opposite sex.


An Investigation in to the Impact of Spirituality on Ethical Behavior in Family: An Analysis of the Viewpoints of the Students of Islamic Azad University of Naghdeh and Solduz

Nader Bohluli / Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Bonab Branch, Bonab, Iran
 Ali Hedayat Fassandouz / Professor at the Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Naghdeh
Branch, Naghadeh, Iran    alihediyat1365@gmail.com
Mehdi Imani Hassanlouei / Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Naghdeh Branch, Naghadeh, Iran
Received: 2018/01/30 - Accepted: 2018/06/02

The holy Quran is a complete model for healthy and moral behaviors in social and individual relationships, and ethical awareness leads to ethical behavior. The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of spirituality on ethical behavior in family among the students of Islamic Azad University of Solduz International Branch and Naghade branch. The research method is applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of data collection, it is descriptive- correlational using the structural equation model. Using Cochran's formula and randomized sampling, 302 students were selected as the sample from the statistical population of the study. The data were collected using the Parsian and Doning Spirituality Questionnaire and Lusir's Ethical Behavior Questionnaire. In order to test the fitting goodness, structural equation modeling with partial least squares approach was performed. The results of the analysis showed that spirituality has a positive and significant effect on ethical behavior in family. Spirituality explains 0.39 of the changes in moral behavior of family. Among spirituality dimensions, spiritual activity, the importance of spiritual beliefs, self-awareness and spiritual needs respectively explain 29/0, 29/0, 20/0 and 0, 16 of changes in moral behavior. The significance coefficient of the path of spirituality on ethical behavior in family is 6.36, which is more than the p- value of 1.96.
Keywords: spirituality, ethical behavior, family, structural equations.

Professional Ethics Standards for Officials in a Decent Management System (in the Light of Imam Ali’s Thoughts)

 Seyyed Ahmad Habibnejad / Assistant Professor at the  Department of Public and International Law, Farabi
Colledge, Tehran University    a.habibnezhad@ut.ac.ir
Zahra Ameri / Assistant Professor of Law, the University of Bojnourd
Received: 2017/12/06 - Accepted: 2018/05/03

The standards and criteria of professional ethics are clear examples of a correct professional approach for officials. They help officials and those involved in the administrative system use this pattern in their duties and choose the right way. Observing these standards is necessary in any decent administrative system. In order to have a professional behavior with an Islamic identity, it is appropriate to use the most deserving Islamic administrative system, i.e. the government of Imam Ali. The main question of this research concerns the criteria and norms of professional ethics that, after the prophet, were emphasized in the rule of Imam Ali as the most decent system for government officials. The aim is to identify the ethical standards governing the behavior of officials in the decent system of Imam Ali, use them as the bases and criteria governing the behavior of managers and officials in other administrative structures and systems, and achieve an optimal administrative system within the framework of Islamic thought. This research is a descriptive- analytical study and its results indicate that adherence to ethical standards in the government of Imam Ali can be identified and explained in four general sections: the general criteria governing the behavior of officials, the criteria governing the duties of agents to people, the criteria governing the duties of agents to the higher-ranking officials and the criteria governing the duties of agents to the employees.
Keywords: professional ethics, administrative system, officials, people.

A Review and Critique of the Negative Nature of Happiness in Kant's Deontological Ethics

 Farzaneh Modraberi / MA in Philosophy, Allameh Tabataba'i University,    f_modaberi33@yahoo.com
Mehdi Akhavan / Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Allameh Tabataba'i University
Received: 2018/01/18 - Accepted: 2018/06/30

As a subjective basis of all actions, happiness is one of the most important concepts in ethics, .However, according to Kant's ethics, this concept cannot be a foundation or motivation for general and absolute ethics. The aim of this paper is to investigate why happiness is ignored in Kant's ethics. It begins with the definition of happiness and then considers the critiques and the principles of Kant's ethics that are in contrast with seeking happiness .At last, the paper is concluded with some criticisms. The aim of ethics is setting categorical and unconditional rules which the experimental principle of happiness cannot provide. Emphasizing on the objectivity of the rules of man’s intellect,  Kant’s formal ethics regards paying attention to experimental end and matter as harmful.. However, happiness is a subjective and personal issue whose provisions can neither be general nor do they  necessarily result in  happiness, because happiness is often provided by nature. The most important critique to this kind of ethics is denying the role of seeking happiness as a motive for moral action. Moral actions need either the support of God for its obligations and prohibitions or the consideration of personal happiness, both of which Kant's ethics lacks .
Keywords: deontological ethics, happiness, duty, categorical rules, Kant.

A Comparative Study of Jay Moore and Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Theory of Justifying Moral Propositions

 Ali Akbar Shameli / Student of Theology Teaching University of Islamic Teachings
Seyyed Akbar Hosseini Ghal’e Bahman / Associate Professor of Religious Studies at IKI
Received: 2018/02/16 - Accepted: 2018/06/19

One of the most important epistemological issues in the field of moral philosophy is the issue of justification of moral propositions. With regard to the justification of moral propositions, different theories have been presented by ethical philosophers. Apparently among these views, two theories of conscientiousness and intuitionism are most similar. Moral conscientiousness believes that moral issues do not require logical thinking, and conscience alone invites humans to moral acts. On the other hand, intuitionists make a similar claim in other words. Despite all their similarities, due to differences in semantics, these two theories differ in the epistemology of moral propositions. Using the descriptive-analytical method, this article reviews and criticizes the views of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the founder of conscientiousness, and G.E. Moore, the founder of intuitionism. The results of the study show that Rousseau's theory of conscientiousness and Moore's theory of intuitionism on the issue of justification of moral propositions differ from each other in three aspects. First, although both philosophers are known as introverts, Rousseau introduces conscience as an inner sense, but Moore regards it as a rational observation and emphasizes that intuition is not a sense. In addition, intuition and conscience are also different in being permanent or not, and in being natural or not.
Keywords: justification, conscientiousness, intuitionism, ethics, Rousseau, Moore.

The Nature of Moral Concepts Based on Transcendental Philosophy
Mohammad Hosseinzadeh Yazdi / Professor of Philosophy Department, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research
 Mahmoud Sharifi / MA in Islamic Mysticism, IKI    m-sharifi35@mihanmail.ir
Received: 2017/10/10 - Accepted: 2018/04/04

Moral concepts, like well-known philosophical concepts, belong to the category of ideas, not forms, and have an external and non- subjective manifestation; therefore, they have great resemblance to secondary intelligibles. However, firstly, as the external realization of moral concepts is the basis for the voluntary act of man, and secondly, finding their examples is the basis for the doer’s intention, moral concepts are different from famous philosophical concepts. This difference has led Muslim scholars to discuss the philosophical concepts and propositions related to ontological area under the rubric of theoretical philosophy, and to discuss the concepts and propositions related to axiology under the rubric of practical philosophy. In this paper, while investigating the reality of philosophical concepts, we examine the nature of moral concepts and their differences with famous philosophical concepts. The existence of a fundamental distinction between these two categories of concepts has led to interpreting famous philosophical concepts as "secondary ontological intelligibles", and considering moral concepts or any concept related to the voluntary and purposeful actions of man as "secondary axiological intelligibles."
Keywords: ethical concepts, philosophical concepts, theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy, Mulla Sadra.