قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

The Demonstrability of Moral Propositions from the Perspective of Martyr Motahhari

Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Amiri / Level Four of Hawzah                         hadi0hi@gmail.com

Received: 2018/03/06 - Accepted: 2018/08/24



One of the issues raised in the philosophy of ethics is the recognition of the verisimilitude of value propositions. Some believe that value concepts are philosophical concepts. Consequently, the propositions derived from these concepts are knowledge-creating and provable. From the perspective of others, the notional concepts of these propositions are considered to be mentally-posited. Using a problem-oriented approach and describing and comparing the works of Martyr Motahari and their intellectual analysis, this research seeks to discover the truth about this issue from the viewpoint of Martyr Motahari. A careful attention to the professor's statements shows that professor Motahhari has the second perspective. But the relativity of value propositions cannot be attributed to him. It seems that the words of the professor are correct in imperative statements, but in the declarative propositions of statement, they are false.

Keywords: demonstrability, value proposition, relativity, being mentally-posited, philosophical concepts.

An Investigation of the Threefold Aspects of Ethical Non-Realism; Based on Rational Positivism and Analytic Philosophy

Mohammad Sarabakhshi / Assistant Professor at the Department of Philosophy, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                                                                                                                 Sarbakhshi50@Yahoo.com

Received: 2018/06/23 - Accepted: 2018/12/03



Carnap's imperativism, Ayer’s and Stevenson's emotivism, and Hare's prescriptivism are unrealistic schools that, despite some differences, agrees on denying the reality of moral values based on the positivist approach and analytic philosophy. In fact, these three schools are different aspects of an intellectual approach, which, by insisting on the principle of empirical provability on the one hand, and the analysis of the meaning of words with an empirical approach on the other hand, explain the reality or unreality of different affairs. This, in the realm of ethics, has led them plunge into the abyss of ethical non-realism. Hare is not a positivist but an advocate of analytic philosophy, the empirical approach is manifest in the ethical positions of this philosopher too. Basically, all analytic philosophers share such an approach. The lack of attention to abstract realities including moral values are among the main causes of this mistake as well as most of the mistakes made by the Western philosophers. Explaining and reviewing the three above mentioned schools, this paper shows their flaws and criticisms.

Keywords: non-realism, imperativism, emotivism, prescriptivism, rational positivism, analytic philosophy.

Explaining the Criterion for Moral Value Based on the Proportion of the Elements of the Optional Act

Mohammad Jawad Ghasemi Asl Estahbanati / PhD Student of the Philosophy of Islamic Economics, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                                                                     ghasemi2561@anjomedu.ir

Received: 2018/07/30 - Accepted: 2018/12/10



The explanation of the criterion for the value of moral act has long been dealt with in studying ethics and the philosophy of ethics. The two main approaches in this field are reliance on consequence and duty in moral behavior. Criticizing these two approaches, the following study reviews the criterion for moral value. The research findings show that referring to the consequence and duty means adherence to the moral behavior in the identification and measurement of the moral act; whereas it is necessary to look for moral value in the direct act of the doer. The morality of a behavior depends on the proportion between the elements of the optional act, that is, the knowledge, ability, and ability of the doer. Accordingly, an ethical action can be as graded as the degrees of knowledge and ability. The criterion for the morality of a Muslim’s behavior is confessing to the servant hood of man before God and obeying God's orders, which is an excellent example of moral proportionalism.

Keywords: criterion for value, proportionalism, deontological ethics, consequentialism, intention, use, knowledge.

The Cosmological Foundations of Ethics in the Theological Thoughts of Seyyed Morteza

Vahid Pashaei / Assistant Professor at Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan

Received: 2018/03/14 - Accepted: 2018/08/26                                          pashaeivahid@gmail.com



In order to design a moral system, there is a need for different and solid foundations. One of the most important foundations for the introduction of a moral system is the cosmological foundation that reflects the scholars' view of the worlds in existence and the principles governing them. In his theological thoughts, Seyyed Mortazi, a famous Shiite scholar, has a view of the universe which leads to the division of the realms of existence into different worlds: the worlds of pre-existence, this world, and the worlds after this world. This paper described and analyzed this view and its impact on ethics, and reached some results such as moral motivation with regard to the belief in the afterlife and the rewards and punishments in the hereafter, the meaningfulness of morality with regard to the denial of the world of pre-existence of pre-existence and the justification of the moral life based on believing in the wise creator and ruler of the world.

Keywords: worlds of existence, moral motivation, meaningfulness of ethics, this world, the world of pre-existence, Seyyed Mortazi.

Agents and Realms of Morality in Politics

Seyed Mohammad Ali Taghavi / Associate Professor in Political Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,     smataghavi@um.ac.ir

Majedeh Ha’eri / MA in Political Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Received: 2018/05/11 - Accepted: 2018/10/04                                          mhaeri1267@yahoo.com



Human beings are always on the crossroad of choice. They have to evaluate different options, and ethics provides them with the criteria to do so. Politics as one of the spheres of human life is no exception. It is impossible and futile to do without morality in politics. We can only talk about different moral principles that can or should be observed within the public realm. This paper, addresses the question of which areas of politics are in need of moral rules, and who are to be moral agents in these areas. Findings of this research, which is carried out in the area of descriptive ethics, show that the following parts of politics are in need of moral rules, namely, the formation of political society, justification of the obedience relationship between rulers and the ruled (legitimacy), the limits of government’s authority, methods and tools of enforcing authority, and public relations among citizens. The scope of the involvement of morality in politics can also be divided into two sections on the basis of the moral agent. In this regard, we can talk about rulers’ as well as citizenship’s morality, which is sometimes called as political or civic virtue.

Keywords: ethics, politics, citizenship’s  morality, rulers’ morality, political virtue.

The Individual Norms of Happiness Ethics in Islam

Seyyed Ziauddin Olia Nasab / Associate Professor of Islamic Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences                                                                                                           olyanasabz@mail.tbzmed.ac.ir

Seyyed Mortazhi Olia Nasab / MA in Islamic Ethics, Ma'aref University of Qom

Received: 2018/04/17 - Accepted: 2018/08/20                                   oliyanasab1365@yahoo.com



"Happiness ethics" examines the values that govern the act of happiness and discusses the relationship of man with God, himself and the others. The values governing the relation of man with himself in the area of happiness are the individual norms of happiness ethics which have been studied in this research using a descriptive-analytic method, documentary approach and based on Islamic sources and ethical texts. This research addresses the individual norms of happiness ethics from the point of view of Islam. The research findings showed that a believer has special ethical duties for virtuous happiness and should possess some virtues. From the point of view of Islam, these norms include: seeking truth, foresight, ambitiousness, restraint, dignity, chastity and contentment.

Keywords: Islamic ethics, happiness, happiness ethics, individual norms, happiness in Islam.